The contractor for this project is SL Ross Environmental Research Ltd with experiments conducted at Aarhus University, the Danish Center for Environment and Energy (DCE), the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), and the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Environmental Laboratory (CRREL)
Task 1: Research Summary
A research summary was prepared summarizing previous research focusing on herder fate and effectiveness, environmental aspects (e.g., toxicity, biodegradation, fate), and a list of key references.
Task 2A: Experiments on Environmental Effects of Using Herders for In Situ Burning (ISB)
This task included laboratory burning experiments to investigate the potential environmental effects of using herders for ISB operations; experiments to determine acute and chronic toxicity and bioaccumulation of herders on arctic copepods; studying biodegradation of herders; determining the physical fate of the herder during burning; and analysis of the smoke plume to determine if the herder or herder combustion products are being emitted.
Task 2B: Experiments on Windows-of-Opportunity for Herders
Experiments were conducted at SL Ross will be to determine the window-of-opportunity for the two commercially-available herders (ThickSlick 6535 and OP 40) to herd slicks of different oils to ignitable thicknesses. A two-week, large-sale test program was conducted at CRREL.
Task 2C: Experiments on Impacts of Herder Monolayer on Birds:
This task involves laboratory experiments at DCE to investigate the potential impact and effects of contact with the herder sheen (prior to and after the burning operation), on the feathers of Arctic seabirds.